Контрольні завдання з англійської мови




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Міністерство освіти і науки України

Національний технічний університет України

“Київський Політехнічний Інститут ”

КОНТРОЛЬНІ ЗАВДАННЯ

З АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ МОВИ



для студентів IV курсу

інженерно-фізичного факультету

заочної форми навчання


Київ – 2009

Контрольні завдання з англійської мови для студентів IV курсу інженерно-фізичного факультету заочної форми навчання / Уклад.: Я.С. Грищенко. – К.: КПІ, 2009. – 25 с.

Навчальне видання

КОНТРОЛЬНІ ЗАВДАННЯ

^ З АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ МОВИ



для студентів IV курсу

інженерно-фізичного факультету

заочної форми навчання


Укладач: Грищенко Яна Сергіївна

З М І С Т

Передмова...................................................................................................................................................4

Контрольна робота №1..............................................................................................................................5




Контрольна робота №2..............................................................................................................................7

Контрольна робота №3..............................................................................................................................9

Контрольна робота №4............................................................................................................................11

Контрольна робота №5............................................................................................................................13

Контрольна робота №1............................................................................................................................15

Контрольна робота №2............................................................................................................................17

Контрольна робота №3............................................................................................................................19

Контрольна робота №4............................................................................................................................21

Контрольна робота №5............................................................................................................................23

Список використаної літератури............................................................................................................25

Передмова
Запропоновані контрольні завдання розроблені для студентів ІV курсу інженерно-фізичного факультету заочної форми навчання, з метою підсумкового контролю знань студентів протягом четверного навчального року.

Контрольні завдання складаються з 10 контрольних робіт, що поділені на два підсумкових блоки стосовно мовного матеріалу.

Кількість контрольних робіт, виконаних на кожному курсі, встановлюється учбовим закладом. Виконувати кожну контрольну роботу доцільно в окремому зошиті. Після одержання незадовільної рецензії рекомендується отримати додаткову консультацію з боку викладача.

Контрольна робота повинна бути виконана письмово у зошиті.
^ Зразок оформлення контрольної роботи:
Контрольна робота

з англійської мови

варіант №________

студента(ки) факультету_________

групи _____

П І Б
Перевірив(ла): ___________
У процесі підготовки до заліків та екзаменів рекомендується передивитись матеріал відрецензованих контрольних робіт.

До заліку допускаються студенти, які виконали програмні контрольні роботи та інші завдання в обсязі, передбаченому програмою.

4 курс 1 семестр
Контрольна робота № 1
I. Find the verbs in the Subjunctive Mood and underline them. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.


  1. This gas must be kept in a special vessel lest it be evaporated.

  2. These steps might appear arbitrary.

  3. He demanded that the work should be started at once.

  4. Now it is essential that astronomers determine the mass of large numbers of other objects in the Universe.

  5. The laws of mechanics require that the distance of each body from that center of gravity should be related to its mass.

  6. Acid is added so that the metal should dissolve.


II. Explain the use of tenses in the following conditional sentences. Translate them into Ukrainian.


  1. If we expanded a spiral of lead wire a little, it would assume its original shape again afterwards.

  2. If there had been no electrical connection between the zinc and the copper but little zinc would have dissolved.

  3. If we were pulling a rubber band and then stopped pulling it, the rubber band would quickly return to its original shape and size.

  4. If there are any changes, the laboratory technician will know.

  5. If defective castings were brought in for analysis, they would be tested.


III. Translate all sentences into English. Find the verbs in the Subjunctive Mood and underline them.


  1. Вона хотіла, щоб цю проблему сприйняли серйозно.

  2. У ефірах та схожих розчинниках частота не змінювалася.

  3. За реакцією слідкували за допомогою вимірювання температури.


IV. Define the types of the clauses and translate the sentences.


  1. The fire was widespread, yet no property was damaged.

  2. As the piston moves up, it compresses the fuel.

  3. She takes off her protective suit the moment that she turns a corner.

  4. Turn off the lights before you leave.

  5. He speaks so quickly that I can’t understand him.

  6. Even though I drank a bottle of water, I was still thirsty.

  7. He asked for a few days off because of the fact that he was exhausted.


V. Define which of the sentences are simple and which are complex. Translate the sentences.


  1. The fact is that they are very good engineers.

  2. They also undertake the training of people who want to work at the new plant but do not have the required qualification.

  3. The students know how to conduct this experiment.

  4. When the engineer receives his diploma he does not finish his education.

  5. There is a growing need for engineers familiar with the fundamental problems in metal processing and manufacturing.

VI. Translate the text into Ukrainian:
Composite materials
Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials that remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level while forming a single component. There are two categories of constituent materials: matrix and reinforcement. At least one portion (fraction) of each type is required. The matrix material surrounds and supports the reinforcement materials by maintaining their relative positions. The reinforcements impart special physical (mechanical and electrical) properties to enhance the matrix properties. A synergism produces material properties unavailable from naturally occurring materials. Due to the wide variety of matrix and reinforcement materials available, the design potential is incredible. This great variety has resulted in an enormous lexicon that confounds both new and experienced students. Names and descriptors arise from the respective experiences of different perspectives. While different industries use different terms to describe the same things, the same term can be applied in vastly different contexts.

The most primitive composite materials comprised straw and mud in the form of bricks for building construction. The most advanced examples perform routinely on spacecraft in demanding environments. The most visible applications pave our roadways in the form of either steel and aggregate reinforced Portland cement or asphalt concrete. Those composites closest to our personal hygiene form our shower stalls and bath tubs made of fiberglass. Solid surface, imitation granite and cultured marble sinks and countertops are widely used.
VII. Translate these sentences into Ukrainian; underline the predicates and define their verb forms:


  1. The matrix material surrounds and supports the reinforcement materials by maintaining their relative positions.

  2. A synergism produces material properties unavailable from naturally occurring materials.

  3. The variety of matrix and reinforcement materials has resulted in an enormous lexicon that confounds both new and experienced students.

  4. The most advanced composite materials perform routinely on spacecraft in demanding environments.

  5. The most visible composite materials pave our roadways in the form of either steel and aggregate reinforced Portland cement or asphalt concrete.


VIII. Find in the text nouns corresponding to the following words; translate them into Ukrainian:
Respective, visible, personal, experienced, building, constituent, visible, macroscopic, reinforcement, matrix.
IX. Translate the following words and word combinations into English:
Механічні властивості, синергізм, регулярно, навколишнє середовище, мармуровий, твердий, цегла, надзвичайно, зміцнення.


4 курс 1 семестр
Контрольна робота № 2
I. Find the verbs in the Subjunctive Mood and underline them. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.


  1. Though such an apparatus be developed, this would not solve the problem.

  2. The user might vary this value during the consultation process.

  3. The countries could have signed the treaty.

  4. I wish you wouldn’t use this device.

  5. They should have chosen Prof. N. to preside at the meeting.

  6. One cannot speak of particles and waves as though they were two different things.


II. Explain the use of tenses in the following conditional sentences. Translate them into Ukrainian.


  1. The head engineer asked if all the engineers of the shop had gathered.

  2. If highly durable metal alloys had not been developed, there would be no modern rockets and aviation today.

  3. If the polar axis of Venus were not almost vertical, there should be seasons.

  4. If the reinforced plastics will be used in this car depends on the results of the test.

  5. If I saw our lecturer, I shall ask him to explain this difficult material again.


III. Translate all sentences into English. Find the verbs in the Subjunctive Mood and underline them.


  1. Важливо, щоб ця речовина була хімічно чистою.

  2. Після експерименту відбудеться перевірка кінцевого продукту.

  3. Цей метод не використовується у хімії вуглеводнів.


IV. Define the types of the clauses and translate the sentences.


  1. It was such an interesting book that I couldn’t put it down.

  2. I’ll call you as soon as I finish the experiment.

  3. It was hot, so he turned on the air-conditioning.

  4. There is so much traffic that we won’t be on time.

  5. They are such intelligent creatures that they can communicate with each other.

  6. He wrote the number down in order not to forget it.

  7. Brian is good at Maths whereas his sister is good at Science.


V. Define which of the sentences are simple and which are complex. Translate the sentences.


  1. Chemistry had a new birth in the 20th century, essentially organic chemistry.

  2. He shows me what results he has obtained.

  3. There is a growing need for engineers who are familiar with the fundamental problems in metal processing and manufacturing.

  4. On receiving his diploma the engineer does not finish his education.

  5. The students know how they have to conduct this experiment.

VI. Translate the text into Ukrainian:
Physical Methods of Determining Atomic Weights
Physical measurements are rapidly increasing in diversity and precision. The gradual change from atomic-weight values based on chemical determinations to values based on physical measurements is expected to run its course to completion, but it is difficult as yet to predict which physical methods will be the most accurate.

Basically, two types of physical measurements should be distinguished. First, there are those in which the atomic weight of an element is determined directly as an average appropriate for the isotopic composition of that element. Historically the most important technique of this kind is that of gas-density ratios depending on Avogadro's rule. The most promising method of this first type is the X-ray diffraction method in which, ideally, the macroscopic density of a pure, perfect crystal is compared with the density of the atomic-scale-pattern unit, dimensionally determined by X-ray diffraction.

In the second type of physical determinations, the atomic masses of nuclides are first measured. This can now be done with great accuracy by mass spectroscopy, the technique in which charged particles are separated according to their atomic masses and from the energy changes in nuclear reactions. For elements composed of only one nuclide, extremely accurate atomic-weight values are thus directly available. The isotopic composition must be separately measured, however, for the great majority of the elements before their atomic weights can be calculated from the nuclidic masses. Mass spectroscopic measurements, calibrated by synthetic mixtures of isotopes, are generally superior to chemical and other physical methods for elements with two or at most three isotopes. Thus, for some time to come, mass spectroscopy is likely to remain the technique on which a large number of atomic-weight values are based.
VII. Translate these sentences into Ukrainian; underline the predicates and define their verb forms:


  1. Avogadro’s law is a statement that under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain an equal number of molecules.

  2. A nuclide is characterized by the mass number and the atomic number.

  3. Mass spectrometry is an analytic technique by which chemical substances are identified by the sorting of gaseous ions in electric and magnetic fields according to their mass-to-charge ratios.

  4. Nuclide is species of atom as characterized by the number of protons, the number of neutrons, and the energy state of the nucleus.

  5. X-ray diffraction is a phenomenon in which the atoms of a crystal, by virtue of their uniform spacing, cause an interference pattern of the waves present in an incident beam of X rays.


VIII. Find in the text nouns corresponding to the following words; translate them into Ukrainian:
Macroscopic, important, chemical, atomic-weight, physical, isotopic, synthetic, mass, nuclear, diffraction.
IX. Translate the following words and word combinations into English:
Маса ізотопа, поступове змінення, розрізняти, дифракція, вимірювати, чистий, завершення, більшість елементів, точність, значення.

4 курс 1 семестр
Контрольна робота № 3
I. Find the verbs in the Subjunctive Mood and underline them. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.


  1. It is improbable that he should have completed the research.

  2. Make exact calculations lest you should fail with your experiment.

  3. I wish you had checked the results better.

  4. Be careful lest you should make mistakes in calculations.

  5. In determining the orbit of a planet we may neglect accelerations of the sun and treat it as if it were at rest.

  6. Though he may be busy he will complete the work on time.



II. Explain the use of tenses in the following conditional sentences. Translate them into Ukrainian.


  1. If the team he supports wins he is elated, if it loses he is disappointed.

  2. If the standard metre of the world had been made on a gold or silver alloy bar, it shouldn’t have been so accurate.

  3. Unless the scientists had developed atomic clocks, we wouldn’t have had so accurate standard of time.

  4. If I had known about the exhibition of new machine-tools I should have gone there.

  5. If the laboratory gets new equipment, we shall test it.


III. Translate all sentences into English. Find the verbs in the Subjunctive Mood and underline them.


  1. Цей метод неможливо б було використовувати, навіть якщо б він був цікавим.

  2. Значно менше було написано про механізми здійснення зміни станів.

  3. Дуже мало відомо про подальші переговори, за виключенням того, що ніякого порозуміння не було досягнуто.


IV. Define the types of the clauses and translate the sentences.


  1. In spite of working very hard, she doesn’t earn much money.

  2. All flights were cancelled due to the thick fog.

  3. Whenever he is in town, he visits us.

  4. She went to the laboratory because she had a task.

  5. There was very cold, so I wore my space suit.

  6. We will send you the forms in order that you can make your application.

  7. The reason for his resignation was the fact that he had been offered a better job.


V. Define which of the sentences are simple and which are complex. Translate the sentences.


  1. If we obtain good results, the reinforced plastics will be used in this car.

  2. When new types of autos are designed all the latest achievements of scientific and engineering progress are taken into account.

  3. He shows me the results of his work.

  4. The achievements of science that are applied to manufacturing increase the productivity in all branches of industry.

  5. I know this engineer, who is standing at the door.

VI. Translate the text into Ukrainian:
Physical properties
Physical properties of rocks are of interest and utility in many fields of work, including geology, petrophysics, geophysics, materials science, geochemistry, and geotechnical engineering. The scale of investigation ranges from the molecular and crystalline up to terrestrial studies of the Earth and other planetary bodies. Geologists are interested in the radioactive age dating of rocks to reconstruct the origin of mineral deposits; seismologists formulate prospective earthquake predictions using premonitory physical or chemical changes; crystallographers study the synthesis of minerals with special optical or physical properties; exploration geophysicists investigate the variation of physical properties of subsurface rocks to make possible detection of natural resources such as oil and gas, geothermal energy, and ores of metals; geotechnical engineers examine the nature and behaviour of the materials on, in, or of which such structures as buildings, dams, tunnels, bridges, and underground storage vaults are to be constructed; solid-state physicists study the magnetic, electrical, and mechanical properties of materials for electronic devices, computer components, or high-performance ceramics; and petroleum reservoir engineers analyze the response measured on well logs or in the processes of deep drilling at elevated temperature and pressure.

Many properties of rocks are dependent on grain or crystal size, shape, and packing arrangement, the amount and distribution of void space, the presence of natural cements in sedimentary rocks, the temperature and pressure, and the type and amount of contained fluids (e.g., water, petroleum, gases). Some properties can vary considerably, depending on whether measured in situ (in place in the subsurface) or in the laboratory under simulated conditions. Electrical resistivity, for example, is highly dependent on the fluid content of the rock in situ and the temperature condition at the particular depth.
VII. Translate these sentences into Ukrainian; underline the predicates and define their verb forms:


  1. Since rocks are aggregates of mineral grains or crystals, their properties are determined in large part by the properties of their various constituent minerals.

  2. Electrical resistivity is highly dependent on the fluid content of the rock in situ and the temperature condition at the particular depth.

  3. Many properties of rocks are dependent on grain or crystal size, shape, and packing arrangement, the amount and distribution of void space, the presence of natural cements in sedimentary rocks, the temperature and pressure.

  4. Geologists are interested in the radioactive age dating of rocks to reconstruct the origin of mineral deposits.

  5. Because many rocks exhibit a considerable range in these factors, the assignment of representative values for a particular property is often done using a statistical variation.


VIII. Find in the text nouns corresponding to the following words; translate them into Ukrainian:
subsurface, geotechnical, physical, solid-state, electronic, simulated, sedimentary, natural, void, crystal.
IX. Translate the following words and word combinations into English:
Залежний, питомий опір, петрофізика, наземний, попередній, нафта, рідина, кристалограф, землетрус, вимірювати.


4 курс 1 семестр
Контрольна робота № 4
I. Find the verbs in the Subjunctive Mood and underline them. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.


  1. The object behaves as if it were given some energy at the start.

  2. These activities might have complemented each other, but it was not case.

  3. Keep the temperature so that the substance should not be cooled.

  4. If he had not used this formula he would not have made this mistake.

  5. It was necessitate restoration of the building.

  6. The new results could cause great changes in the course of the experiment.



II. Explain the use of tenses in the following conditional sentences. Translate them into Ukrainian.


  1. The experiments show agreement with theory provided the conditions are met.

  2. If the tools were used with greater force the depth of the cut would be affected.

  3. Had we time we should test the sample twice.

  4. Were we to compare these data, our representation would take a numerical form only.

  5. They would fulfil the task could the plan be realized.


III. Translate all sentences into English. Find the verbs in the Subjunctive Mood and underline them.


  1. На цю працю часто посилаються у спеціальній літературі.

  2. З деревиною проводиться багато експериментів, та над нею працюють у науково-дослідницьких інститутах.

  3. Це могло б бути більш справедливим для деяких типів операцій, ніж для інших.


IV. Define the types of the clauses and translate the sentences.


  1. He did a postgraduate course in order to widen his knowledge of physics.

  2. Now that they have additional work, they have less free time.

  3. It was such expensive reagents that they were kept in a safe.

  4. He couldn’t get a job in spite of being qualified.

  5. They set off early in the morning to avoid getting stuck in traffic.

  6. When the spark plug ignites, the gases explode.

  7. We took a taxi so as not to be late to the conference.


V. Define which of the sentences are simple and which are complex. Translate the sentences.


  1. When designing new types of autos all the latest achieve­ments of scientific and engineering progress are taken into account.

  2. We must define now how the conditions change with temperature.

  3. The question was how we could repair this equipment.

  4. You will learn what a diesel engine is, how it works and how it differs from a gasoline engine.

  5. Whether the reinforced plastics will be used in this car depends on the results of the test.



VI. Translate the text into Ukrainian:
Condensed-matter Physics
This field, which treats the thermal, elastic, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of solid and liquid substances, has grown at an explosive rate in recent years and has scored numerous important scientific and technical achievements, including the transistor. Among solid materials, the greatest theoretical advances have been in the study of crystalline materials whose simple repetitive geometric arrays of atoms are multiple-particle systems that allow treatment by quantum mechanics. Because the atoms in a solid are coordinated with each other over large distances, the theory must go beyond that appropriate for atoms and molecules. Thus conductors, such as metals, contain some so-called free (or conduction) electrons, which are responsible for the electrical and most of the thermal conductivity of the material and which belong collectively to the whole solid rather than to individual atoms. Semiconductors and insulators, either crystalline or amorphous, are other materials studied in this field of physics.

Other aspects of condensed matter involve the properties of the ordinary liquid state, of liquid crystals, and, at temperatures near absolute zero, of the so-called quantum liquids. The latter exhibit a property known as superfluidity (completely frictionless flow), which is an example of macroscopic quantum phenomena. Such phenomena are also exemplified by superconductivity (completely resistance-less flow of electricity), a low-temperature property of certain metallic and ceramic materials. Besides their significance to technology, macroscopic liquid and solid quantum states are important in astrophysical theories of stellar structure in, for example, neutron stars.
VII. Translate these sentences into Ukrainian; underline the predicates and define their verb forms:


  1. The atoms in a solid material are coordinated with each other over large distances.

  2. Superconductivity is a low-temperature property of certain metallic and ceramic materials.

  3. Condensed-matter physics has grown at an explosive rate in recent years and has scored numerous important scientific and technical achievements.

  4. Metals contain some free electrons, which are responsible for the electrical and most of the thermal conductivity of the material.

  5. Superfluidity is an example of macroscopic quantum phenomena.


VIII. Find in the text nouns corresponding to the following words; translate them into Ukrainian:
Quantum, multiple-particle, liquid, theoretical, crystalline, frictionless, conduction, ceramic, macroscopic, solid.
IX. Translate the following words and word combinations into English:
Надтекучість, квантова рідина, кристалічний матеріал, значущість, підходящий, рідка речовина, досягнення, абсолютний нуль, відповідати за щось, твердий матеріал.

4 курс 1 семестр
Контрольна робота № 5
I. Find the verbs in the Subjunctive Mood and underline them. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.


  1. Without the force of gravitation there would be no pressure in liquids.

  2. If there were no clouds, we should not enjoy the sun.

  3. Our method could be generalized.

  4. He suggested that these parts should be tested under very severe conditions.

  5. It was of great importance that we should obtain fresh data for the confirmation of our idea.

  6. It would be worthwhile taking a critical look at the concept itself.



II. Explain the use of tenses in the following conditional sentences. Translate them into Ukrainian.


  1. If nothing goes wrong he will be back in a fortnight.

  2. They could have understood the task had he explained it clearly.

  3. We shall make the experiment once more if only to check the result.

  4. We are not sure if this method will prove adequate in big firms.

  5. If I were you, I should have rechecked the results.


III. Translate all sentences into English. Find the verbs in the Subjunctive Mood and underline them.


  1. Зробіть точні розрахунки, щоб ваш експеримент не провалився.

  2. Зараз можна ставити питання та можна давати на них відповіді.

  3. Програма повинна бути складена, закодована, випробувана та документована.


IV. Define the types of the clauses and translate the sentences.


  1. In spite of heavy snow, we managed to get to the office.

  2. The professor invited such a lot of students to the seminar that there wasn’t enough room for all of them.

  3. She covered the table with a sheet to prevent it from getting dirty.

  4. I took a taxi because it was raining.

  5. As the brake pedal is pressed, the piston pushes the oil along the brake pipe.

  6. When the engineer receives his diploma he does not finish his education.

  7. He has such a lot of money that he doesn’t know what to do with it.


V. Define which of the sentences are simple and which are complex. Translate the sentences.


  1. Plastics are used in volumes which have exceeded those of all the non-ferrous metals put together.

  2. The advantage of the diesel engine is that it has a higher thermal efficiency.

  3. What the head engineer said is very important.

  4. All students know that to become an engineer they must study hard.

  5. That future improvements in productivity largely depend on the application of science to manufacturing is a well-known fact.



VI. Translate the text into Ukrainian:
Composite Materials
The combinations of two or more different materials are called composite materials. They usually have unique mechanical and physical properties because they combine the best properties of different materials. For example, a fibre-glass reinforced plastic combines the high strength of thin glass fibres with the ductility and chemi­cal resistance of plastic. Nowadays composites are being used for structures such as bridges, boat-building etc.

Composite materials usually consist of synthetic fi­bres within a matrix, a material that surrounds and is tightly bound to the fibres. The most widely used type of composite material is polymer matrix composites (PMCs). PMCs consist of fibres made of a ceramic mate­rial such as carbon or glass embedded in a plastic matrix. Usually the fibres make up about 60 per cent by volume. Composites with metal matrices or ceramic matrices are called metal matrix composites (MMCs) and ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), respectively.

Continuous-fibre composites are generally required for structural applications. The specific strength (strength-to-density ratio) and specific stiffness (elastic modulus-to-density ratio) of continuous carbon fibre PMCs, for example, can be better than metal alloys have. Composites can also have other attractive properties, such as high thermal or electrical conductivity and a low coefficient of thermal expansion.

The advanced composites have high manufacturing costs. Fabricating composite materials is a complex proc­ess. However, new manufacturing techniques are devel­oped. It will become possible to produce composite mate­rials at higher volumes and at a lower cost than is now possible, accelerating the wider exploitation of these materials.
VII. Translate these sentences into Ukrainian; underline the predicates and define their verb forms:


  1. The designer who uses composite materials in structures subjected to multidirectional forces, must take these anisotropic properties into account.

  2. PMCs and other com­posite materials tend to be highly anisotropic—that is, their strength, stiffness, and other engineering proper­ties are different depending on the orientation of the com­posite material.

  3. Composite materials usually consist of synthetic fi­bres within a matrix, a material that surrounds and is tightly bound to the fibres.

  4. Although composite materials have certain advan­tages over conventional materials, composites also have some disadvantages.

  5. If a PMC is fabricated so that all the fibres are lined up parallel to one another, then the PMC will be very stiff in the direction parallel to the fibres, but not stiff in the perpendicular direction.


VIII. Find in the text nouns corresponding to the following words; translate them into Ukrainian:
Matrix, continuous-fibre, specific, elastic, attractive, multidirectional, fibre-glass, ceramic, thermal, manufacturing.
IX. Translate the following words and word combinations into English:
Питома міцність, керамічний, розширення, волокно, питома жорсткість, анізотропний, композитні матеріали, унікальні механічні якості, привабливі якості, скловолокно.

4 курс 2 семестр
Контрольна робота № 1
I. Combine each pair of sentences into a single sentence. Write I – for identifying, NI – for non-identifying sentences.
Example: A solar panel is a device. It converts sunlight into electricity.

A solar panel is a device which converts sunlight into electricity. (I)
My computer has a DTV card. This is connected by cable to my satellite dish.

My computer has a DTV card, which is connected by cable to my satellite dish. (NI)


  1. Aristotle wrote books on many subjects. He studied under Plato.

  2. John reports to Adel. Adel is the training manager.

  3. A lab assistant is a technician. He maintains the equipment in a laboratory.

  4. Investors are people. They create new devices.

  5. Last month I went back to Oxford. I studied history there.



II. Complete the sentences with a relative pronoun or adverb. If it is possible to omit the pronoun, do not include it. Put commas where necessary. Translate the sentences.


  1. Einstein ………….. failed his university entrance exam went on to discover relativity.

  2. He is the person ………….. I told you about.

  3. Last year we visited Rome …………… we thought was a really beautiful city

  4. I can’t find the book …………. I was reading.

  5. Oxford University ………….. is the oldest university in the English-speaking world, allowed women to graduate in 1920.

  6. It’s the story of a man ………….. life changes forever the day he meets a stranger in his laboratory.

  7. The president …………. is currently on a trip to the USA said he disagreed with the decision.


III. Translate into English using the inversion.


  1. Якби не дощ, ми б зараз пішли на прогулянку.

  2. Якби ми використовували цій метод роботи, ми б мали бажані результати.

  3. Якби секретар приніс ці документи, завідуючий підписав би їх.


IV. Rewrite the sentences, beginning with the words in bold. Translate them into Ukrainian.
Example: I had never seen such a fierce dog before.

Never before had I seen such a fierce dog.


  1. The actors came onto the stage.

  2. The birds flew away.

  3. The rain came down.

  4. You should not travel alone under any circumstances.

  5. His house is at the end of the road.


V. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Underline the part of the sentence with the inversion.


  1. To this branch of physics was added another one.

  2. Had the collisions been considered in this case, the equation could have been obtained.

  3. Were it not for this fact, the data obtained would be correct.

  4. Were the relationship between these events, we would certainly act differently.

  5. Should they show any uncertainty, we would see it.


VI. Translate the text into Ukrainian:

  1   2   3   4

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